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Chhattisgarh, India

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Avdisha, 8th Standard, Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Area: 1,35192 sq. km

Capital: Raipur

Jurisdiction of High Court: Chhatisgarh High Court

Population: 2.56 crore (census 2011)

Principle languages: Hindi

State flower: Not Designated

State tree: Sal Tree

State animal: Wild buffalo

State bird: Hill myna

Official website: http://www.cgstate.gov.in

Chhattisgarh, carved out of Madhya Pradesh came into being in November 2000 as the 26th state of the Union. It fulfills the long-cherished demand of the people. In ancient times the region was known as Dakshin-Kausal. This finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata also. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalchuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1791 AD. With the advent of the British in 1845, Raipur gained prominence instead of capital Ratanpur. In 1904 Sambalpur was transferred to Orissa and estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.

Chhattisgarh is bounded by southern Jharkhand and Odisha in the east, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the west, Uttar Pradesh and western Jharkhand in the north and Andhra Pradesh in the south. Are-wise, Chhattisgarh is the ninth largest state and population-wise it is seventeenth populous state of the nation.

Agriculture

Total geographical area of Chhattisgarh is 137.90 lakh ha. out of which arable land is about 47.70 lakh ha. Area under kharif crop is around 47.60 lakh ha. and rabi is 16.61 lakh ha. At present due to various irrigation sources, area in kharif season is 13.55 lakh ha. which is about 29 per cent of arable area.

In Chhattisgarh, out of 34.61 lakh farm families, 77 per cent belongs to small and marginal farmers. Here, 33 per cent of farm families belong to Scheduled Tribe and 12 per cent belong to Scheduled Caste. The agro climate zones of Chhattisgarh are three viz., Northern Hill Zone, Chhattisgarh Plain and Plateau of Baster. The average annual rainfall of this area is about 1307.3 mm.

The main kharif crop of this region is paddy which is about 76 per cent of total kharif crops. Apart from its other main crops grown here are maize, soyabean, groundnut, urdbean and pigeon pea. Similarly main rabi crops grown here are wheat, gram, lathyrus, mustard and linseed.

Irrigation and Power

When the state came into being, the total irrigation capacity was 13.28 lakh hectares which has 23 per cent of total sown area which has now increased to 18.44 lakh hectares which is 33.15 per cent of total sown area.

Major completed projects are Mahanadi Reservoir Projects, Hasdeo Bango Project, Tandula, Kodar, Jonk D/S, Kharung, Maniyari Tank and Pairy (Sikasar) Project, Jonk Project, Kharang Project, Mariyani Project. The capacity of State Electricity Production Company is 1924.70 MW of which 1786 MW in thermal and 138.7 MW in hydel electricity.

Mineral Resources

Chhattisgarh has the perfect geological set up to host a number of economically crucial minerals. Large deposits of coal, iron ore, limestone, bauxite and dolomite are found in various parts of the state. Districts of north Chhattisgarh such as Surguja, Raigarh, Koriya and Bilaspur are known for huge coal deposits. The state has 50846 million tones reserve in coal as on 1.4.2012 in 12 coal fields. Mineral activities contribute approximately 13.63 per cent to the State G.S.D.P. against the national figure of 2.5 per cent.

Industry

The economy of Chhattisgarh is largely natural resource driven and it leverages the state’s rich mineral resources. The key sectors where Chhattisgarh has a competitive advantage include cement, mining, steel, aluminium and power. One of the most mineral-rich states in India, Chhattisgarh provides a lucrative opportunity for cement production at the most competitive prices. Along with vast natural resources, industries also find ample skilled human resources.

Transport

Roads: The total length of the roads in the state under PWD is 31803 km. The length of National Highway is 2226 km; State highways 5240 kms; 10,539.80 km; main district roads; and 13798 kms other district and rural roads. The length of roads in Chhattisgarh has increased from 17.75 km to 21.40 km per 100 km.

19,718 km of roads have been constructed under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna. To connect interior areas of state, not covered under PMGSY, state government started Mukhya Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna and 4000 km of roads worth 2000 crores will be constructed within two years.

Railways: Raipur, Bilaspur, Durg, Rajnandgaon, Raigarh and Korba are important railway stations.

Tourist Centres

Chhattisgarh situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The state is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife species, carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, waterfalls, caves, rock paintings and geographical formations.

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