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Karnataka, India

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Avdisha, 8th Standard, Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Area: 1,91,791 sq. km

Population: 6.11 crore

Capital: Bengaluru

Jurisdiction of High Court: Karnataka

Principle language: Kannada

State flower: Kamal (Lotus)

State tree: Indian Sandalwood

State animal: Elephant

State bird: Indian roller

Official website: http://www.karnataka.gov.in

Karnataka has a recorded history of more than 2,000 years. Apart from its subjection to the rule of Nandas, Mauryas and the Satavahanas, Karnataka came to have indigenous dynasties like the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas from the middle of the 4th century AD. The world renowned Gomateshwara monolith at Shravanabelagola was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya. The colossal rock cut image of Sri Gomateshwara is the most magnificent among all Jaina works of art. Numerous visitors arrive at Shravanabelagola to gaze at this and other monuments. The Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) reigned over a wider area, from Narmada to the Kaveri from the days of Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD) who even defeated the mighty Harshavardhana of Kanauj. This dynasty created fine, everlasting and the most beautiful monuments at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, both structural and rock-cut. Aihole has been one of the cradles of temple architecture in the country. The Rashtrakutas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed who succeeded them heaped tributes on the rulers of Kanauj successively in the so-called ‘Age of Imperial Kanauj’. Kannada literature developed during this period. Outstanding Jain scholars of India lived in their court. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu built exquisite temples, encouraged literature and various fine arts. Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara) lived at Kalyana. The great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana. Vijayanagar empire (1336-1646) patronised and fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature in Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. Overseas trade flourished. The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (tobacco, maize, chillies, groundnut, potato, etc.). After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under British rule. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was ushered in. The urban middle-class emerged. Mysore dynasty initiated and helped industrialization and cultural growth.

Freedom movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After Independence, the Mysore State was created in 1953, wherein all the Kannada dominant areas under different dispensations were unified and the enlarged Mysore state carved in 1956 and was renamed Karnataka in 1973.

Karnataka is situated between 11°31’ and 1814’ north latitudes and 7412’ and 7810’ east longitudes. It is bounded by Goa and Maharashtra on the north; Telangana and Andhra Pradesh on the east; Tamil Nadu on the south east and Kerala on the South.

Forestry and Wildlife

The forest department manages about 20.15 per cent of the geographical area of the state. Forests have been classified as reserved forests, protected forests, unclassified forests, villages forests, and private forests. There are 5 national parks and 23 wildlife sanctuaries. To overcome shortage of fuel wood, fodder and timber, degraded forests and waste lands are being developed. Emphasis is also being laid on the conservation, protection and development of the fragile ecosystem of the Western Ghats. Several wildlife protection schemes such as Project Tiger and Project Elephant are being implemented with the Central assistance. The concept of Joint Forest Planning and Management applied to the two externally aided projects viz. Western Ghats Forestry and Environment Project (DFID) and Forestry and Environment Project for Eastern Plains (JBIS) has resulted in village forest planning and management through establishment of Village Forest Committees.

Agriculture

The state has 66 per cent rural population and 55.60 per cent of workers are agricultural labourers. The state has 60 per cent (114 lakh ha) cultivable land and 72 per cent of the cultivable area is rainfed; only 28 per cent is under irrigation. The state has 10 Agro Climatic Zones. The red soil constitutes major soil type, followed by black soil. The net sown area of the state constituted 51.7 per cent of the total land.

Dairy

Karnataka is one of the major milk producers and the Karnataka Milk Federation has 21 dairy processing plants with a capacity of 26.45 lakh litres a day and 42 chilling centres having 14.60 lakh litres of chilling capacity.

Horticulture

Horticulture crops are grown in an area of 16.80 lakhs hectare and the produces amount to 101 lakh tonnes. The Union Government earmarked 171.29 crore for Karnataka under National Horticulture Mission.

Power Generation

Karnataka was the pioneer in establishing hydroelectric projects in the country. Karnataka has 7222.91 power generation installed capacity and 31,229 million units of electricity was generated.

Biotechnology

Karnataka State and Bengaluru city in particular have become the largest bio-clusters in the country.

Transport

Roads : Total road length has increased from 83,749 km to 2,15,849 km. The Karnataka Highways Improvement Project with World Bank assistance will improve 2,375 km of road, i.e. upgradation of 900 km and rehabilitation of 1,475 km comprising state highways and major district roads at an estimated cost of 2402.51 crore. Assistance is being provided under the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund for the construction and improvement of roads and bridges in the state.

Ports: The state has a maritime coastline of 155 nautical mile (300 kilometres) and has only one major port at Mangalore, i.e., New Mangalore Port and studded with ten minor ports - Karwar, Belekeri, Tadria, Honnavar, Bhatkala, Kundapur, Hangarkatta, Malpe, Padubidri and Old Mangalore. Out of ten ports, Karwar is the only all weather port while the other nine are the riverine anchorage lighterage ports.

Aviation: The Civil Aviation Sector has seen tremendous growth with international air passenger traffic growth of 50 per cent and domestic air passenger growth at 44 per cent.

Tourism

Karnataka “One State Many Worlds” is becoming a hub of tourist attraction of south India. The IT and BT Centre Bengaluru has received more tourists in the recent past. The state is known for its heritage monuments and eco-tourism destinations. The Golden Chariot named after the famous Stone Chariot in Hampi, a world heritage site, in southern India will travel through timeless historical heritage sites, resplendent palaces, wildlife and golden beaches. Its 7 nights/8 days colourful journey begins every Monday from Bengaluru and traverses through Mysore, visiting Srirangapatna, Mysore Palace, the Nagarhole National Park (Kabini) and continuing to the historical sites of Shravanabelagola, Belur - the 11th century cradle of Hoysala architecture and a world heritage site, Halebidu, Hampi and thereafter entering into the triangular heritage sites of Badami, Pattadakal, Aihole and finally the Golden Beaches of Goa before ending in Bengaluru.

Karnataka has a blend of heritage places, thick dense forests and holy places. The new concept of ‘Homestay’ has added a new dimension to tourism in the state. Hampi and Pattadakal have been declared as world heritage sites.

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