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Mizoram, India

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Avdisha, 8th Standard, Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Area: 21,081 sq. km

Population: 10.97 lakh (census 2011, provisional)

Capital: Aizwal

Jurisdiction of High Court: Falls under the jurisdiction of Guwahati High Court. There is a Bench at Mizoram

Principle language: Mizo, English, Lushai

State flower: Red Vanda

State tree: Indian Rose Chestnut

State animal: Serow

State bird: Mrs. Hume's pheasant

Official website: http://mizoram.gov.in

Mizoram is a mountainous region which became the 23rd state of the Indian Union in February 1987. It was one of the districts of Assam till 1972 when it became a Union Territory. After being annexed by the British in 1891, for the first few years, Lushai Hills in the north remained under Assam while the southern half remained under Bengal. Both the parts were amalgamated in 1898 into one district called Lushai Hills District under the Chief Commissioner of Assam. With the implementation of North-Eastern Reorganization Act in 1972, Mizoram became a Union Territory and as a sequel to the signing of the historic memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front in 1986, it was granted statehood in 1987. Sandwiched between Myanmar in the east and the south and Bangladesh in the west, the state occupies an area of great strategic importance in the northeastern corner of India. Mizoram has a great natural beauty and an endless variety of landscape rich in flora and fauna.

The Mizos came under the influence of the British Missionaries in the 19th century. Now most of the Mizos are Christians. Mizo language has no script of its own. The missionaries introduced the Roman script for the Mizo language and formal education.

Agriculture

About 60 per cent of the people of the state are engaged in agricultural and allied activities. The main pattern of the agriculture followed is jhum or shifting cultivation. Of the total, 21 per cent is put on paddy/seasonal crops. About 63 per cent of the total crop area is under jhum cultivation. To replace the destructive and unproductive jhum cultivation with sustainable means of occupation, the state government has launched an innovative programme called the New Land Use Policy covering all the districts. The area under Jhum cultivation has decreased from 44,947 hectare at the beginning of 11th Plan to 20,064 hectare during 2014-15 which account for above 55.36 per cent reduction. The significant reduction in jhum area is mainly due to the implementation of NLUP, oil palm development programme, sugarcane cultivation programme, RKVY, and RAD.

Horticulture

Owing to the fact that more than 60 per cent of the population depends on land based activities for their livelihoods, horticulture plays a vital role and occupies very important place in the economy of Mizoram. Because of its advantageous agro-climatic condition, hilly terrain nature of the landscape and well distributed rainfall during monsoon season horticulture is a sustainable land based activities for development of the economy. Out of the estimated total of 21 lakh hectare of land 6.30 lakh hectare is available for cultivation of horticulture crops. The main horticulture crops are mandarin orange, banana, passion fruit, grapes, hatkora, pineapple, papaya, etc. and flowers like anthurium, bird of paradise, orchid, chrysanthemum, rose and other subsidiary seasonal flowers. Spices like ginger, turmeric, black pepper, bird’s eye chillies are also grown. A multi-purpose packaging house has been set up at the Horticulture Centre, Chite in collaboration with M/s Argos (Agri Projects) Ltd., Israel.

Floriculture was a growing occupation in Mizoram. Cultivation of anthurium was introduced in 2002 and today anthurium cut flowers are exported outside the state and overseas market. Commercial cultivation of rose under hitech green house was introduced in 2006 and about 10,000 rose cut flowers are being harvested everyday.

Forest

Mizoram has one of the highest forest cover among the states of India. India State of Forest Report-2015 indicated that about 91.47 per cent of the state’s total geographical area is under forests cover. Tropical semi evergreen, tropical moist deciduous, subtropical broadleaved hill and subtropical pine forests are the common vegetation types found. Bamboo resources covers around 31 per cent (about 6446 Sq.km) of its geographical area and as many as 35 species of bamboo have been identified in the state of which Melocanna baccifera (mautak) contributes about 77 per cent of the total bamboo coverage.

Jhum cultivation, or slash-and-burn practice, was a historic tradition and a threat to its forest cover. This practice is reduced in recent decades from a government supported initiative particularly New Land Use Policy of the state.

The popular and effective Green Mizoram Programme has been continuing with stress on the survival of the trees planted under which mass afforestation and maintenance activities have been taken up every year. 4700 hectares of plantation have also been created under the National Afforestation Programme.

Irrigation

Due to hilly nature of the state, all irrigation projects are confined to minor irrigation. As per estimation of Mizoram Remote Sensing Application Centre, the total Wet Rice Cultivation potential area is 74,644 ha. So far, 439 minor irrigation projects covering 18,228 ha command area have been completed. 25 new minor irrigation projects are proposed to be cover during 2016-17 which will cover an area of 1,117.90 ha. and create an irrigation potential of 1656 ha. The proposed projects will benefit 791 of farmers covering different parts of the state.

Industry

Due to its topographical and geographical disadvantages coupled with underdeveloped infrastructure and transport bottleneck, growth in industry is very modest. However, with the opening up of border trade with Myanmar and Bangladesh, the ‘Look/Act East Policy’ of the Government of India and the peaceful condition of the state, industrialization is gaining momentum.

Small industries dominate the industrial scenario acquiring prominent place in the socio-economic development of the state. With the objectives of promoting industries in rural areas, the state government has been running two commonly facility centre and one Regional Industrial Development Corporation (RIDC) with an intake of 35 trainers.

Scientific cultivation of tea has also been taken up. Establishment of apparel training and design centre, gems cutting and polishing are in the pipeline to encourage setting up of Export Oriented Units (EOUs). Of the cottage industries, handloom and handicraft are given high priority and the two sectors are nourishing to meet consumers’ demand in the state and in neighbouring states of Meghalaya, Nagaland, etc.

Power

As per the 18th Power Survey of India, the bulk power requirement of Mizoram is 201 MW and the allocated share is 103.09 MW (real time power availability is normally 60 MW). Per capita consumption is 280kWh. The present peak demand is 102MW but the state generates only about 15MW from the installed capacity of 29.35MW. The rest of the requirement has to be imported from various sources like Loktak, Ranganadi, etc. from Central Sector Utilities like NEEPCO, NHPC, NTPC, etc.

Transport

Road: Road serves as the most important means of communication, transportation of goods and passengers within the state, interstate and with international borders. Total road length in the state is 6349.60 km and road density is 300012 km/100 sq km approximately. There are six national highways passing through the length and breadth of Mizoram. NH 54 connects Aizawl with the rest of the country through Silchar, Assam. Aizawl is also accessible by road from Shillong and Guwahati.

Railways: Broad gauge rail link has been established in Bairabi, Mizoram near Assam border.

Aviation: The airport at Lengpui is connected by flights to and from Kolkata, Imphal and Guwahati. Internal helicopter service also connects Aizawl with Lunglei, Lawngtlai, Saiha,Chawngte, Serchhip, Champhai, Kolasib, Khawzawl, Mamit and Hnahthial.

Festival

Being predominantly an agricultural community all the activities of the Mizo centre around jhum cultivation. ‘Kut’ is the Mizo term for festival. Among the various cultural festivals, only three, viz., Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut and Thalfavang Kut are being observed now a days.

Tourist Centres

Mizoram is a place with flora and fauna rich landscape and pleasant climate. Aizawl, the capital city is located at 3715 feet. above sea level, is a religious and cultural centre. Champhai is a beautiful resort on the Myanmar border. Tam Dil, a natural lake with virgin forest, is 76km from Aizawl and 10 km from tourist resort of Saitual. Vantawng Falls, 5 km from the town of Thenzawl is the highest and most beautiful waterfall in the state. 2 km from Vantawng one can find a quaint and beautiful fall known as Tuirihiau. Thenzawl is also the main centre for handlooms. Phawngpui is the highest peak at an elevation of 2157 m and a trekkers delight. Just 30 km from Aizawl is beautiful Reiek Peak. A typical Mizo village which is a recreation of an old Mizo village is located at Falkawn, 24 km from Aizawl. Hmuifang Tlang about 50 km and Sialsuk Tlang about 66 km from Aizawl respectively are popular tourist destination. The Department of Tourism has opened tourist lodges in all the bigger towns all over the state and highway restaurants and travellers inns in other township. There is also a recreational centre at Beraw Tlang, Aizawl and Alpine Picnic Hut at district park near Zobawk. Reiek Tlang, where the Tourism Department created a typical Mizo village, modern Mizo village, resort.

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