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Terminology in Cardiology - B

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Base (of the Heart): - Top of the heart located in the 4th intercostals space.

Beta stimulation: - responses come from adrenergic = sympathetic stimulation, first the heart ratecontraction force, second the bronchial dilatation.

Blood Pressure (BP): - The force or pressure exerted by the heart against the walls of the arteries. When the arterioles (smaller arteries) constrict (narrow), the blood must flow through a smaller "pipe" and the pressure rises. High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. Optimal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mm Hg (mercury). High blood pressure = hypertension, more than140/90 mm Hg - 120-139/80-89 mm Hg are considered pre-hypertension. Hypertension increases the risk of: angina, athersclerosis, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, kidney failure, myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease, ineffective and uncoordinated contractions of the basement membrane causing an irregular pulse, cardiac output, Coronary artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, blood pressure, acute myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism and some medications are associated with the development of arrhythmias. The types of arrhythmias are Fibrillation (can be atrial or ventricular. Ineffective beats), Tachycardia (fast heart beat, usually more than 110 beats per minute) and Bradycardia (slow heart beat, usually less than 50 beats per minute).

 Bradycardia: - An abnormally slow heart beat; usually less than 60 beats per minute.

Bundle of His: - A pacemaker (40-60bpm) and part of the cardiac conducting system it transmits the electrical stimulation/depolarization through the atrioventricular septum to the right and left Purkinje fibres.

Bundle branches: - Part of the cardiac conducting system = bundle of His + Purkinje bundles right+ left Bundle-branch Block - an interruption of the cardiac conducting system - Purkinje fibres are insulated to conduct the signal rapidly through the ventricles – if either side is blocked the other must travel further and hence depolarization is slower - elongating the QRS complex.

Burst: -A run of three or more ectopic heart beats.

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