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Terminology in Cardiology - E

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Echocardiogram: - A study using high-frequency sound waves to picture or visualize the heart chambers, the thickness of the muscle wall, the heart valves and major blood vessels located near the heart. This is a non-invasive procedure.

Echocardiography: - The use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of cardiovascular lesions and in recording the size, motion, and composition of various cardiac structures.

Ectopic: - With respect to the heart a depolarizing wave originating outside the sinoatrial node.

 Ejection Fraction: - The measurement of the blood pumped out of the ventricles compared to the total amount of blood in the ventricle (Normal is 60%).

Electrocardiogram (ECC or EKG): - A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms and detects heart muscle damage (heart attacks). Future events cannot be predicted. A graph of the electrical conduction system of the heart.

Electrolytes: - Elements or chemicals, generally anions or cations, needed to enable the body and heart to work properly. The most frequently tested are: Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Chloride; levels outside the normal range cause cardiac (heart) and other problems.

Electrophysiological Study (EPS): - A cardiac catheterization to study electrical current in patients who have arrhythmias.

Endocarditis: - A bacterial infection of the heart that may affect heart valves and the aorta.

Endocardium: - Smooth innermost layer of the heart, covers all chambres and the valves - continuous with the endothelium lining the blood vessel lumen.

Endotracheal Tube (ETT): - A tube inserted into the trachea (wind pipe) to provide a passageway for air.

Enzymes: - When the heart is injured (such as a heart attack) certain enzymes are released due to tissue breakdown and death. They are called LDH, SGOT and CPK.

Epicardium: - The membrane that covers the outside of the heart –fused with the visceral pericardium often used interchangeably with this term, supports the cardiac vessels before they penetrate the myocardium.

Excitability: - A cells ability to respond to an impulse by depolarizing or by spontaneous depolarization.

Extrasystole: - Premature complex or heart beat.

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