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Terminology in Botany - S

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Salverform: Flower shape in which there is a narrow floral tube with perianth parts widely spreading at more or less right angles to the tube

Scale: Thin, usually membranous structure; small, triangular leaf or bract

Scrambling: Clambering or spreading irregularly along the ground

Secondary: Describing a root developing from another root, a stem from another stem, but a minor spine in comparison to a major spine

Sect.: Abbreviation for the taxonomic rank of section

Seed: Developing from a fertilized ovule, containing the embryo resulting from fertilization after pollination segmented. Divided into sections, such as the stem joints of a cactus of the subfamily Opuntioideae self-pollination. Pollination of a flower by its own pollen or that from a flower on the same plant or clone sepal. Sterile outer leaflike structure of the flower, collectively the calyx; compare petal, tepal sessile. Without a stalk sheath. Tubular cover short shoot. A long-lasting shoot apparently lacking internodes shrub. A woody perennial lacking a main stem or trunk, usually with several stems, rarely exceeding 5 m (16 ft) in height sinuate. With a wavy margin; a margin winding strongly inward and outward

Solitary: Single; with a simple, undivided stem

Spination: Collective term referring to the spines of a plant

Spine: A modified leaf, usually a stiff, pointed structure arising from an areole; compare central spine, radial spine

Stamen: Male reproductive structure of the flower, consisting of a filament and anther; the androecium staminode. Sterile stamen stem segment. A portion of a stem usually separated by a constriction

Stigma: Terminal portion of the pistil that receives the pollen during pollination

Stomata: Specialized pores formed by guard cells and subsidiary cells; capable of opening and closing to control gas exchange necessary for photosynthesis

Strophiole: Corky appendage usually derived from the funiculus, covering part or all of the hilum; a specialized aril; compare caruncle

Style: Usually elongate structure connecting the stigma and ovary, through which the pollen tube grows in transporting the sperm to the egg

sub-.: Prefix meaning nearly, less than, or somewhat; for example, subapical, just beneath or below the stem tip

subg.: Abbreviation for the taxonomic rank of subgenus

subsect.: Abbreviation for the taxonomic rank of subsection

subsp.: Abbreviation for the taxonomic rank of subspecies

Succulent: Describing a plant that stores water in enlarged, specialized spongy portions such as leaves, stems, or roots sympatric. Describing an overlap in geographic distribution of two or more taxa

Synonym: A scientific name that has been superseded by a different name because of change in the circumscription of a taxon as a result of botanical study; for example, Opuntia bigelovii Engelmann 1856 and 0. ciribe Engelmann ex J. M. Coulter 1896 are synonyms of Cylindropuntia bigelovii (Engelmann) F. M. Knuth 1935, meaning that Frederic Knuth included the two plants originally described as 0. bigelovii and 0. ciribe in a single species in the then newly described genus Cylindropuntia, with the correct name for the species being taken from 0. bigelovii, described in 1856, which has nomenclatural priority over 0. ciribe, described in 1896 taproot. Large, usually solitary carrotlike root, usually vertically oriented in the soil taxon (plural, taxa). A natural group of organisms at any rank in the taxonomic hierarchy; for example, Cactaceae is a taxon, Ariocarpus is a taxon, and A. kotschoubeyanus is a taxon tepal. Sterile leaflike structure of the flower when the perianth parts are not differentiated into sepals and petals terminal. At the distal end of an organ.
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