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Livestock Diseases

Fatty Liver, Hepatic Lipidosis Syndrome in Cats

Hepatic Lipidosis in cats is characterized by chronic anorexia (complete, partial); weight loss; and fatty degeneration of the liver in the presence of abundant abdominal
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Zygophallaceous Plant Toxicity Motor Neuron Disease in Cattle and Sheep

Ingestion of plants belonging to 3 genera of the family Zygophyllaceae has been associated with clinical symptoms of motor neuron disease in cattle and/or sheep....
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Zygomycosis, Pythiosis, Lagenidiosis in Dogs and Cats

Zygomycosis is caused by fungi from genera including Mucor, Absidia, Rhizopus and Saksenaea in the class Zygomycetes, as well as the genera Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus...
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Zygomycosis, Phycomycosis in Ostriches

Zygomycosis is caused by fungi of the class Zygomycetes. Young ostriches that had been treated with antibiotics developed white gelatinous mucous adherent to the inner...
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Zygomycosis, Mucormycosis, Phycomycosis

Fungi of the order Mucorales rarely cause systemic disease of the respiratory, nervous, digestive, and/or lymphatic systems. Rhinocerebral and nasal zygomycosis was reported in sheep....
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Zinc-Responsive Dermatosis in Goats, Hereditary Malabsorption

Goats developed dermatologic symptoms of Zinc Deficiency that were not associated with a zinc-deficient diet. Lesions were most prominent on the back, legs, udder, face,...
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Zinc-Induced Copper Deficiency in Growing Cats

There was circumstantial evidence that growing kittens developed neurologic symptoms and fading coat colour due to zinc-induced copper deficiency caused by ingestion of zinc from...
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Zinc Toxicity in Dog

Zinc Toxicity has been reported in dogs when objects made of zinc were ingested. Acute renal failure due to tubular necrosis can occur. Species affected: Canine Symptoms:...
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Zinc Toxicity in Cattle and Sheep

Several episodes of zinc toxicity in cattle and sheep have been described. Sources of zinc included the accidental addition of zinc oxide to cattle feed,...
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Zinc Toxicity in Birds

Zinc toxicity can occur in caged birds, particularly psittacines, that chew on wire that is coated with zinc (galvanized). Pennies that contain zinc are a...
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Zinc Responsive Dermatosis, Deficiency in Dogs

Zinc-Responsive Dermatosis that can affect dogs of all ages despite well-balanced diets occurs primarily but not exclusively in northern breeds (Siberian husky, Alaskan malamute and...
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Zinc Responsive Dermatosis, Acrodermatitis in Dogs

Pharaoh Hound puppies had severe generalized dermatosis, retardation of growth and enamel hypoplasia of erupting permanent dentition. They had low serum zinc concentrations and partially...
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Zinc Phosphide Toxicity in Birds

Zinc phosphide is a toxin used in pest control. It is quickly metabolized to phosphine gas, which is responsible for acute clinical effects. Species affected: Avian Symptoms:...
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Zinc or Aluminum Phosphide Toxicity

Zinc phosphide and aluminum phosphide are rodenticides that release phosphine gas when in contact with water or stomach contents. Symptoms can develop 15-60 minutes after...
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Zinc Deficiency in Birds

Zinc is required by birds for skeletal growth and development, epithelial tissue formation and maintenance, and egg production. Young chickens and turkeys suffering from zinc...
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Zearalenone Toxicity in Swine

The molds Fusarium roseum and F. graminearum grow on grains, especially corn, and produce the toxin zearalenone that has estrogen-like activity. Swelling of the vulva...
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Zearalenone Toxicity in Cattle and Sheep

Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin from Fusarium species. Experimental studies show that the ration must contain large amounts of zearalenone fed over an extended period...
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Yolk Sac, Navel Infection, Omphalitis in Young Chicks

Yolk sac infection is common; causes chick mortality 1-4 days after hatching. The syndrome is a result of build-up of infection by organisms such as...
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Yew, Taxus, Poisoning in Ruminants and Horses

Yew (Taxus) plants have leaves that are waxy, linear, dark green, and pointed. In horses they are can produce acute lethal cardiotoxicity. Acute and subacute...
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Yersiniosis in Sheep and Goats

Yersinia enterocolitica or occasionally Y. pseudotuberculosis have been associated with a variety of clinical disorders. There can be localized enteritis and/or bacteraemia leading to systemic...
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Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Cattle

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterium. Mastitis and/or diarrhoea in cattle caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is rare. Species affected: Bovine Symptoms: Agalactia or dysgalactia; Haematochezia (bloody faeces);...
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Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Birds

Pseudotuberculosis is a contagious disease of domesticated and wild birds caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis characterized by acute Septicaemia followed by focal infection. Species affected: Avian Symptoms: Anorexia...
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Yellow-Wood, Terminalia oblongata Poisoning in Cattle and Sheep

Yellow-wood (Terminalia oblongata) is a bushy tree that is an important cause of plant poisonings in Australia. Both an acute syndrome and a chronic wasting...
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Yellow Fat Disease, Equine Nutritional Panniculitis

Yellow Fat Disease, adipose cell degeneration and inflammation of adipose tissue, has been seen in foals and adult horses of several breeds. Subcutaneous masses and...
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Xylitol Toxicity, Ingestion of Sugar-Free Products in Dogs

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute in candies, gum, and baking. Ingestion of xylitol by dogs can cause hypoglycemia due to...
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Xanthomas

Xanthoma is a rare benign granulomatous lesion containing lipid deposits and lipid-filled macrophages usually associated with abnormal concentration or composition of plasma lipids. Lesions consist...
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Xanthomas, Xantogranulomatosis in Birds

Xanthomas are friable, yellow, non-neoplastic masses consisting of multinucleated giant cells, macrophages and cholesterol clefts. They have been found in various body locations in several...
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White Muscle Disease, Vitamin E, Selenium Deficiency, Nutritional Myopathy in Sheep and Goats

White Muscle Disease is most common in older lambs and kids; also seen in neonates. Due to vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency. Blood glutathione peroxidase,...
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White Muscle Disease, Vitamin E, Selenium Deficiency, Nutritional Myopathy in Foals

White Muscle Disease associated with vitamin e/selenium deficiency is most common in foals under a month of age. Weakness and/or dysphagia are the major presenting...
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White Muscle Disease, Vitamin E, Selenium Deficiency, Nutritional Myopathy in Cattle

Deficiency of vitamin E and selenium in cattle can lead to muscle necrosis, usually in regions with selenium-deficient soil. Most common in young calves, even...
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White Line Disease in Horses

Horses can develop a progressive hoof wall separation known as White Line Disease. The separation occurs in the nonpigmented horn at the junction between the...
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White Line Abscess, Disease, Pododermatitis Zona Alba in Ruminants and Swine

Entry of debris at the white line of the sole can cause infection and lameness. Can lead to distal sesamoid bursitis or work upward and...
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White Kidney Poisoning in Horses

Horses developed clinical symptoms shortly after being fed a new batch of feed which contained raw white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and it was surmised...
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White Kidney Bean Poisoning in Cattle

Cattle developed clinical symptoms shortly after being fed a new batch of feed which contained raw white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and it was surmised...
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White Chicks, Astrovirus

White Chicks is a hatchability condition that causes weakness and anaemia, pale mucous membranes or skin; colouration in broiler chicks that rarely survive more than...
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Western Equine Encephalomyelitis

Western Equine Encephalomyelitis is caused by a Togavirus that can cause disease outbreaks in endemic areas. Severe symptoms last a few days and recovery can...
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West Nile Virus, Flavivirus in Dogs

West Nile Virus is a Flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex transmitted in cycles with wild birds as principal reservoir hosts and mosquitoes, mainly of...
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West Nile Virus, Flavivirus in Birds

West Nile Virus is a Flavivirus in the Japanese Encephalitis serocomplex transmitted in cycles with wild birds as principal reservoir hosts and mosquitoes, mainly of...
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West Nile Virus Encephalomyelitis in Horses, Flavivirus, Kunjin

West Nile Virus is a Flavivirus in the Japanese Encephalitis serocomplex transmitted in cycles with wild birds as principal reservoir hosts and mosquitoes, mainly of...
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Wesselsbron Disease in Ruminants

Wesselsbron Disease affects ruminants in Africa. Caused by a Flavivirus spread by insects. Despite serologic evidence of widespread exposure clinical disease is unusual. Abortion is...
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Weever Fish Toxicity in Dogs

During warm summers weever fish (Echiichthys vipera, Trachinus vipera, T. draco) bury themselves in the sand of shallow-water beaches in Devon and Cornwall England. Dogs stepping on the venomous spines...
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Wellfleet Bay Virus, Quarjarvirus

Mortality events have occurred in wintering common eiders (Somateria mollissima) around Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The deaths were associated with an orthomyxovirus, Wellfleet Bay Virus, species...
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Wasp Stings Envenomation in Birds

Envenomation by wasp stings in birds is a rare cause of angioedema. Species affected: Avian Symptoms: Bradycardia; Chemosis, conjunctival, scleral oedema, swelling; conjunctival, scleral oedema, swelling; Corneal...
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Vulvar, Vestibular, Vaginal Lacerations, Trauma, Rupture, Necrosis, Foreign Body, Tear

Injury to the female reproductive tract can following coitus, dystocia; artificial insemination, or even sadistic trauma and sexual abuse. In mares the hymen can be...
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Vulval, Vaginal, Clitoral, Neoplasia, Cysts in Bitch and Queen

Vaginal tumours or polyps are rare in queens but not bitches; most are benign. Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour is an important disease in endemic areas....
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Vulval, Vaginal, Cervical, Uterine, Varicocities, Varicosed Veins in Mares

Mares developed intermittent bleeding from the vulva due to prominent varicosed veins in the dorsal vulvovaginal area. Generally a minor problem but can be of...
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Von Willebrand Disease

Von Willebrand Disease is a quantitative or qualitative defect in von Willebrand factor, a protein required for normal platelet adhesion. Inherited in some breeds of...
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Volvulus, Torsion of Equine Small Intestine, Duodenum

Small Intestinal Volvulus is a rotation of greater than 180 degrees of a segment of jejunum or ileum about its mesentery. Horses of all ages...
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Vitreous Opacities in Horses and Dogs

Opacities in the vitreous body of the eye that appear as specks, threads or filaments occur in about 15% of weanlings and over 90% of...
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Vitiligo, Leukoderma

In Leukoderma white hair grows at the site of trauma to the skin. Vitiligo is characterized by the development of nonpigmented skin with or without...
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Vitas vinifera , Grapes, Raisins, Currants, Sultanas Poisoning in Dogs

Ingestion of the fruits of Vitas vinifera (grapes, raisins, currants, sultanas) can cause acute renal failure in dogs. Species affected: Canine Symptoms: Anorexia (complete, partial); Ataxia (incoordination,...
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Vitamin K-Dependent Multifactor Coagulopathy in Cats

Blood factors II, VII, IX, and X are vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins. An apparently-inherited coagulopathy in Devon Rex cats was associated with marked reductions in...
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Vitamin E-Deficient, Responsive Myopathy

Vitamin E-Deficient Myopathy, a specific myogenic presentation of vitamin E deficiency, has been reported in horses. There were symptoms of Equine Motor Neuron Disease without...
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Vitamin E, Selenium Deficiency, Encephalomalacia in Birds

Encephalomalacia associated with Vitamin E or Selenium deficiency has been reported in birds. Species affected: Avian Symptoms: Abnormal behaviour (aggression, changing habits); Anorexia (complete, partial); Arrhythmia; Ataxia...
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Vitamin E or Selenium-Responsive Caprine Dermatosis

A selenium-deficient diet has been associated with hair loss around the eyes and a dandruff-like condition in both young and older goats. Treated animals seem...
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Vitamin D3 Toxicity, Heart and Great Vessel Calcification in Cattle

Large parenteral doses of vitamin D3 caused prolonged hypercalcaemia and death in cows. Calcification of the heart and great vessels can occur. Species affected: Bovine Symptoms: Agalactia...
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Vitamin D, Cholecalciferol, Calcipotriene, Calcitriol, Calcipotriol Toxicity in Dogs and Cats

Rodenticides and topical preparations can contain vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or its analogues. Toxicities have occurred in dogs and cats, with symptoms in cats frequently not...
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Vitamin D Toxicity, Hypercalcaemia, Mineralization in Birds

Birds developed hypercalcaemia in association with a diet that contained high levels of vitamin D3. There can be tissue calcification. Species affected: Avian Symptoms: Anorexia (complete, partial);...
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Vitamin D Toxicity in Pigs

Vitamin D toxicity in pigs can follow accidental inclusion of large amounts of the vitamin in feed. Blood calcium levels are sometimes elevated and there...
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Vitamin D Toxicity in Horses

High levels of vitamin D in horses led to gross and microscopic calcification of soft tissues, especially the endocardium and walls of blood vessels. Species affected:...
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Vitamin A Toxicity, Hypervitaminosis A in Cats

Ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin A causes proliferation of subperiosteal bone in cats and might also sensitize the periosteum to the effects of trauma....
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Vitamin A Toxicity in Lambs

Lambs fed excess vitamin A in milk powder had findings consistent with Vitamin A Toxicity including elevated liver vitamin A concentrations, hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy,...
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Vitamin A Responsive Dermatosis in Dogs

Vitamin-A-Responsive Dermatosis of dogs presents as a seborrheic skin disease and ceruminous otitis; there is follicular hyperkeratosis characterized by plaques of thickened skin with comedo-like...
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Vitamin A Deficiency in Swine

Severe vitamin A deficiency in piglets leads to neurologic and skin symptoms that progress as the deficiency is prolonged. There are reports of infertiity in...
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Vitamin A Deficiency in Ruminants

Prolonged deficiency of Vitamin A can lead to clinical symptoms. Blindness often night blindness is a common presenting symptom. Congenital hypovitaminosis A has been reported...
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Vitamin A Deficiency in Cats

Cats need vitamin A in the diet since they cannot synthesize it from beta-carotene; this might be a problem on some diets. Reproductive disorders in...
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Vitamin A Deficiency in Birds

Vitmain A deficiency is reported to cause squamous metaplasia and hyperkeratosis of epithelial tissue. Lesion of the oral cavity, conjunctiva, nasal lacrimal duct and respiratory...
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Viral Arteritis in Equines, Arterivirus in Horses

Equine Viral Arteritis virus, an Arterivirus, causes panvasculitis of many body systems. It can present as a generalized influenza-like disease in adult horses, abortion in...
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Vibriosis, Campylobactor foetus Subsp. Foetus in Sheep and Goats

Campylobacter foetus subspecies foetus causes abortions in late pregnancies or stillbirths in sheep and goats during the last 6 weeks of gestation. Spread by ingestion...
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Vibrionic Hepatitis in Chickens

Vibrionic Hepatitis is characterized by 1-2 mm, greyish-white, focal liver lesions of unknown cause. After seeming to disappear this disease has recently re-emerged. Species affected: Avian Symptoms:...
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Vetch, Vicia, Poisoning Granulomatous Disease in Cattle

Ingestion of Vetch (Vicia) can cause outbreaks of skin disease and systemic granulomatous disease in cattle. Early symptoms of rough hair coat, dull, standing on...
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Vesicular Stomatitis

Vesicular Stomatitis is caused by Vesiculoviruses in the family Rhabdoviridae. Vesicles occasionally form on the teats and in the interdigital space of cloven-footed animals; differentiation...
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Vesicular Exanthema of Swine, Vesivirus, Calicivirus Infection

Vesivirus, a genus within the family Caliciviridae, includes the virus that causes Vesicular Exanthema of swine. Clinical symptoms of Vesicular Exanthema cannot be distinguished from...
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Vesicular Adenitis, Seminal Vesiculitis

Seminal Vesiculitis can affect bulls and stallions. Several bacterial species have been isolated. Species affected: Bovine, Equine Symptoms: Anorexia (complete, partial); Dysuria, stranguria; Fever; Haemospermia; Internal abdominal...
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Vertical Hoof Fissures, Cracks

Vertical Cracks in the hoof wall are common; they do not cause lameness unless the break reaches the underlying sensitive tissue. Species affected: Bovine, Equine, Caprine,...
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Vertebral, Spinal Cord, Abscess, Granuloma, Osteomyelitis, Foreign Body, Physitis, Discospondylitis, Empyema

Inflammatory processes can damage the vertebrae, intervertebral spaces, or vertebral bodies and associated intervertebral disks (Discospondylitis). Causes include bacterial or fungal infection or foreign body....
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Vertebral Osteomyelitis, Discospondylitis, Spondylitis, Spinal Abscess, Trauma in Birds

Trauma and vertebral osteomyelitis are common sources of spinal cord compression in birds. Species affected: Avian Symptoms: Abnormal hindlimb reflexes (increased or decreased); Abnormal proprioceptive positioning; Anorexia...
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Vertebral Fracture, Dislocation, Spinal Cord Trauma, Haematoma, Injury, Hematomyelia

Following injury to the spine symptoms are determined by location and severity; there is usually a sudden onset. If displacement of the vertebrae is severe...
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Vertebral Column, Spinal Cord, Cranial Malformation, Anomaly, Dysplasia, Myelodysplasia

Vertebral Malformation might cause symptoms at birth but more frequently results in progressive paresis and ataxia in young animals. In some cases there can be...
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Verminous Pneumonia, Lungworm in Sheep and Goats

Dictyocaulus filaria and Protostrongylus rufescens are the lung parasites which are most pathogenic; they cause similar symptoms. Other lungworms are prevalent in grazing sheep and...
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Veratrum Poisoning in Ruminants

Alkaloids of the plant Veratrum californicum (skunk cabbage, false hellbore, corn lilly) in the western U.S. cause disease in ewes that eat it and teratologic...
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Verapamil Toxicity in Cats and Dogs

Verapamril has been shown to be effective treatment for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, angina, variant angina, cardiomyopathy, and hypertension. Despite its wide use, systematic evaluation of the...
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Ventriculitis

The nematode Hadjelia truncata can cause ventriculitis in pigeons. Cheilospirura sp. nematodes cause ventriculitis in chickens, turkey, Guinea fowl, grouse, pheasant, and quail. Fungal ventriculitis...
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Ventricular, Interventricular Septal Defect

Ventricular Septal Defect is the most common cardiac defect in domestic species. Murmur is often louder on the right than on the left although right-to-left...
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Ventricular Tachycardia Fibrillation, Flutter

Paroxysmal or long-term bursts of ectopic ventricular depolarizations might lead to Ventricular Fibrillation. Usually associated with severe myocardial disease. Ventricular Tachycardia can be inherited in...
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Ventricular Premature Beats, Complexes

Spontaneous discharge of a pacemaker in the ventricle can lead to a premature beat with a bizarre ECG waveform. When these beats are present at...
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Ventral, Angioneurotic Oedema

Transient subcutaneous oedema of unknown cause is called Angioneurotic Oedema. In horses the ventral midline and prepuce are common sites but other regions such as...
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Venous Thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis, Phlebitis, Infection of a Vein, Extravasation Injury

Thrombophlebitis can follow intravenous therapy and is most common over the jugular, limb, and (in dairy cattle) milk veins. With bilateral jugular disease the head...
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Venomous Mammal, Platypus, Shrew Toxicity

Venomous mammals are rare. The platypus, found in Australia, delivers venom by a spur on the medial aspect of the tarsus. Only mature males are...
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Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis

Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis is caused by Togavirus that is mainly limited to South and Central America. A high fatality rate can be expected in animals...
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Vasculitis, Arteritis in Horses, Leukocytoclastic, Photo-Aggravated Dermatitis

Horses can develop a chronic skin condition characterized by necrotizing vasculitis of the deep dermis; there is often a concurrent disease. When lesions are restricted...
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Vasculitis, Angiitis in Dogs and Cats

Vacultis is characterized by purpura, necrosis, and well-demarcated ulceration of the limbs, lips, ears, oral mucosa, tail, and/or other areas. Symptoms are associated with inflammation...
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Vascular Ectasia, Angiodysplasia, Malformation in Dogs

Vascular Ectasia is characterized by dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that are susceptible to trauma and rupture leading to bleeding. Clinical symptoms are due to haemorrhage...
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Vascular Calcifications in Dogs

A Laborador Retriever puppy developed progressive neuromuscular disease. On radiography there was widespread evidence of mineralization, despite normocalcemia. On histology there was severe mineral deposition...
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Vascular Anomalies Causing Haematuria in Horses

Vascular anomalies have caused haematuria in foals and horses. Species affected: Equine Symptoms: Anorexia (complete, partial); Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless; Haematuria; Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria; Hyperpnoea;...
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Variegated, Reticulated Equine Leukotrichia

Variegated Leukotrichia is characterized by crusting of the dorsal midline from the withers to the base of the tail. When the crusts are shed there...
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Varicoceles

Varicoceles are unilateral or bilateral saccular dilatations and/or thromboses in the internal spermatic vein. Might be palpable or can be found on examination of the...
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Vanadium Toxicity in Cattle

Cattle have died due to toxicity from vanadium, which is mined primarily in Russia and South Africa. Species affected: Bovine Symptoms: Anorexia (complete, partial); Ataxia (incoordination, staggering,...
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Vaginitis, Pyovagina in Bitch, Puppy, Queen

Adult-onset Vaginitis can be caused by bacteria or herpesvirus or can be secondary to dystocia vaginal anomalies, foreign body, neoplasia, coital injury, pyometra, metritis, or...
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Vaginal, Vulval, Vestibulovaginal Septum, Hymen, Stricture, Bands, Stenosis

Stenosis of the female lower urinary tract can cause dysuria. Vertical bands or septae of tissue in the vagina are rare causes of dystocia and...
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