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ZhongdianYak, China-Burma

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Country: China

Home tract: Zhongdian and Deqin counties in the very northern part of Yunnan province.

Morphological Characters

Body: Vigorous and beefy constitution with cuneiform body types

Body coat: The majority of the animals are black (62.4%), a black-and-white colouring is found among 27.5% of them, while the rest are black with white-spots on the forehead, legs and tail. Hairs are long, especially those on quarters and belly extending to the earth.

Forehead: Wide

Horns: Both sexes are horned. Long slim horns in black or gray colour, spreading outwards and upwards with the top of the horns relatively ahead or backwards.

Ears: Relatively small, drop down gently

Eyes: Big, round, protrude out

Face: Concave

Neck: Thin without dewlap

Long deep; well developed in females

Quarters: Short quarters; in males forequarters are higher than rear quarter.

Quarters: Short quarters; in males forequarters are higher than rear quarter.

Back: Long flat and straight

Loin: Long flat and straight

Rump: Drooping

Tail: Long and rung shaped with short hairs on

Limbs: Well-developed legs with large feet. In females shorter legs than males.

Morphometric characters

Body weight: Birth male kg, female kg Adult male: 234.6 Kg, Adult female: 192.5 kg, bullocks 294.9 kg

Height at withers: Adult male: 113.1 cm, Adult female: 105.2 cm, bullocks 119.6 cm

Body length: Adult male: 127 cm, Adult female: 117 cm

Heart girth: Adult male: 162 cm, Adult female: 154 cm

Reproductive traits

Age at first breeding: 4 years

Production traits

Daily milk yield: 1.68 kg

Milk yield per lactation: 202-216 kg

Lactation length: 210-220 days

Dressing percentage: 47.8%

Meat percentage: 35.6%

Remarks: Bulls like to fight but female looks docile.


  1. Beijing, “Report on Domestic Animal Genetic Resources in China,” June 2003 [Web Reference]
  2. Dong S., Long R. and Kang M., 2007, “Milking performance of China yak (Bos grunniens): A preliminary report,” African Journal of Agricultural Research; 2(3):052-057. [Web Reference]
  3. Porter V., et al., 2016, “Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding,” 2 Volume Pack. Cabi. [Web Reference]
  4. Wiener G., Jianlin H. and Ruijun L., 2003, “The Yak,” FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, p. 20. [Web Reference]
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