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Tianzhu White Yak

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Country: China

Home tract: Tianzhu county of Gansu province, which is located in the eastern end of the Qilian mountains and the northern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Morphological Characters

Body: Medium body size and fine structure, a well-developed forepart but a less-developed rear part and strong

Body coat: Half the individuals have only white hair and skin with slightly red eye sockets. They are typical albinos. The rest are white but with coloured spots, mostly around the eye sockets. Forelock grow thickly and cur lily.

Head: In males head is larger with wider forehead than females

Horns: Long, thin and bends outside and hind out. Coarser horns with a visible contour in males as compared to females.

Face: Smaller nose in males as compared to females

Mouth: Larger in males as compared to females

Muzzle: Broader in males as compared to females

Lips: Thinner in males as compared to females

Neck: Coarse in males as compared to females. Neck is wide and Dewlap is underdeveloped.

Wither: Apparently high

Chest: Deep

Quarters: The hindquarters are not good as the fore one. The rump looks like the roof or narrow, the quarters grow very short.

Limbs: Short legs

Morphometric characters

Body weight: Adult male: 264 Kg, Adult female: 190 kg

Height at withers: Adult male: 121 cm, Adult female: 108 cm

Body length: Adult male: 123 cm, Adult female: 114 cm

Heart girth: Adult male: 164 cm, Adult female: 154 cm

Tail length: Males 52.3 cm, female 44.7 cm

Reproductive traits

Males are managed to breeding at 3 years old, and females at 2-3 years old. Male-female ratio reaches 1:2-25, and the reproductive rate is 56.4-75.6%.

Production traits

Daily milk yield: 2.25-4.0 kg

Milk yield per lactation: 400.0 kg

Lactation length: 135 days

Dressing percentage: Bullock 54.6%, male 52%, female 52%

Meat percentage: Bullock 41.4%, male 42.5%, female 39.6%

Meat: bone ratio: Bullock 1:4.07, male 1:2.4, female 1:3.7

Eye muscle area: Bullock cm2, male cm2, female cm2

Fleece weight: Males is 3.6 kg, with the maximal yield of 6.0 kg, the under wool yield is 0.4 kg, and the weights of tail fair is 0.6 kg; 1.2 kg, 0.8 kg and 0.4 kg respectively for females, 1.7kg, 0.5kg and 0.3 kg respectively for bullocks.

Carrying capacity: 75 kg with the maximal of100 kg, being able to walk 30-40 kilometers.


  1. Beijing, “Report on Domestic Animal Genetic Resources in China,” June 2003 [Web Reference]
  2. Dong S., Long R. and Kang M., 2007, “Milking performance of China yak (Bos grunniens): A preliminary report,” African Journal of Agricultural Research; 2(3):052-057. [Web Reference]
  3. Porter V., et al., 2016, “Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding,” 2 Volume Pack. Cabi. [Web Reference]
  4. Wiener G., Jianlin H. and Ruijun L., 2003, “The Yak,” FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, p. 20. [Web Reference]
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