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Buchanania latifolia, Buchanania cochinchinensis, Buchanania lanzan, Chironjia sapida

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Shivani Kagra* & K.L. Dahiya**

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* Pursuing Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgeory; Lal Bhadur Shastri Mahila Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Bilaspur (Yamuna Nagar), Haryana, India

** Kurukshetra Global City, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

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Vernacular name:

Assamese: Piyal

Bengali: Chirangi, Chironji, Chowl, Pial, Piyal, Satdhan, Sarop

English: Almondette, Calumpong nut, Chirauli nut, Chironji Tree, Cheronjee, Cuddapah almond, Hamilton mombin

Gujarati: Chaaroli, Charoli, Charal, Shalichokha

Hindi: Char, Chiraungi, Chironji, Chiraunji, Piyal, Piyaar, Priyal, Pra-savak, Piyar

Kannada: Chalaali, Charoli, Kolatmavu, Kole maavu, Nurlaal

Konkani: Char

Malayalam: Mural, Mural maram, Muungaappeezh, Nuramaram, Priyalam, Priyaalam

Marathi: Chaaroli Jhaada

Marathi: Char, Charoli, Piyal

Nepali: Chiraunjee

Oriya: Char, Charu, Chanhra, Charakoli, Priyal

Punjabi: Chironji

Sanskrit: Akhatth, Bhaulavalkala; Carah, Kharaskandhah, Muni, Piyala, Piyalaka, Prasavakh, Priyala, Rajanadanha, Upavatth

Tamil: Charam, Muolaima, Korka, Saarapparuppu, Saraparuppu

Telugu: Char, Charumamidi, Chinna morilli Mori, Priyaluvu, Raj-adanamu, Saara, Sara, Sarapappu, Sarapappu Chettu

Urdu: Chironji, Habb-us-Samena

Taxonomic Hierarchy

Kingdom: Plantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants

Subkingdom: Viridiplantae

Infrakingdom: Streptophyta – land plants

Superdivision: Embryophyta

Division: Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes

Subdivision: Spermatophytina – spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames

Class: Magnoliopsida

Superorder: Rosanae

Order: Sapindales

Family: Anacardiaceae – cashews

Genus: Buchanania Spreng.

Species: Buchanania latifolia Roxb. – Chirauli nut, Chironji Tree, Almondette, Calumpong nut, Cheronjee, Cuddapah almond, Hamilton mombin – (Syn. Buchanania cochinchinensis, Buchanania lanzan, Chironjia sapida)

Phytogeography: Deciduous forests, throughout India upto 900 meter. It is common in forests mostly in eroded ravine lands.

Description: A medium-sized deciduous tree, growing to about 50 feet tall. It avoids waterlogged areas, but occurs locally in clay soils. It can be identified by the dark grey crocodile bark with red blaze. A good species for afforesting bare hill slopes.

Leaves: Tickly leathery leaves which are broadly oblong, with blunt tip and rounded base. Leaves have 10-20 pairs of straight, parallel veins.

Flowers: Pyramidal panicles of greenish while flowers appear in early spring.

Fruits: It bears fruits each containing a single seed, which is popular as an edible nut, known as chironji. Fruits ripen from April to May and remain on the tree for quite a long time.

Flowering season: January-March

Propagation: Seeds

Parts used: Root, rhizomes, Fruit, leaves, seeds, stem bark

Phytochemical Constituents: Albuminoids; Alkaloids; Dioleopalmitin; Dipalmitoolein; Flavonoids; Linoleic acid; Myristic acid; Oil; Oleic acid; Palmitic acid; Polyphenols; Reducing sugars; Saponins; Starch; Stearic acid; Tannins; Triglyceride; Triolein; Triterpenoids.

Pharmacological actions: Acrid; Analgesic; Anticancer; Antidiabetic; Antidiabetic; Antihyperlipidemic; Antihypertensive; Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidant; Antipyretic; Astringent; Cardiotonic; Constipating; Cooling; Depurative; Hepatoprotective, hepatocuritive; Larvicidal; Purgative; Tonic.

Medicinal uses: Abdominal diseases; Asthma; Blood disorders; Bronchitis; Burning sensation; Cardiopathy; Cough; Diarrhoea; Dysentery; Fever; General debility; Hepatosis, hepatopathy, hepatitis; Neuropathy; Oligospermia; Skin diseases; Snake bite; Ulcers.

Root and fruit useful in vitiated conditions of pitta. The roots are acrid, astringent, cooling, depurative and constipating, and are useful in treatment of diarrhoea. Leaves are used in the treatment of skin diseases. Fruits are used in treating cough and asthma.

Other uses: The seeds are edible nut, known as chironji

Dosage and administration: Seeds: 10-20 gm in powder form. Stem bark: 5-10 gm.

References

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, 1999, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume II,” New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH).

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, 2004, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume IV,” New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH).

Flowers of India, “Chironji Tree,” Retrieved on September 29, 2017. [Web Reference]

ITIS, 2017, “Buchanania latifolia Roxb.,” Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, Retrieved on September 29, 2017. [Web Reference]

Mehmood A., et al., 2016, “EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEEDS OF BUCHANANIA LANZAN SPRENG, IN ANIMAL MODELS,” ACTA POLONIAE PHARMACEUTICA; 73(6): 1601-1608. [Web Reference]

Mehta S.K., Mukherjee S. and Jaiprakash B., 2010, “Preliminary phytochemical investigation on leaves of Buchanania lanzan (chironji),” Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res; 3(2): 55-59. [Web Reference]

Rani S., 2014, “INDIAN HERBAL MEDICINE AS HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND HEPATOCURATIVE: A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE,” LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS; 50: 61-115. [Web Reference]

Sengupta A. and Roychoudhury S.K., 1977, “Triglyceride composition of Buchanania lanzan seed oil,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture; 28(5): 463-468. [Web Reference]

Sushma N., et al., 2013, “Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of buchanania lanzan spreng methanol leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced types I and II diabetic rats,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research; 12(2): 221-226. [Web Reference]

Vyavaharkar R.Y. and Mangaonkar S.S., 2016, “EXTRACTION OF FLAVONOIDS FROM BUCHANANIA LANZAN SPRENG. SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF THEIR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 8(1): 353-358. [Web Reference]

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