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Brassica rapa, Brassica campestris, Brassica septiceps, Brassica chinensis, Brassica narinosa, Brassica parachinensis, Brassica perviridis

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Shivani Kagra* & K.L. Dahiya**

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* Pursuing Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgeory; Lal Bhadur Shastri Mahila Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Bilaspur (Yamuna Nagar), Haryana, India

** Kurukshetra Global City, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

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Vernacular name:

Bengali: Sarisa, Shalgom

English: Turnip, Fast plants, Turnip mustard, Rape Mustard, Rape, Bird's Rape, Birdsrape Mustard, Wild Mustard, Wild Rutabaga, Wild Turnip, Turnip Rape, Field Mustard

Gujarati: Sarasad, Rai

Hindi: Saraso, Shalgam

Kannada: Sasuve, Sasuvae, Sasive

Malayalam: Katuka

Marathi: Kalamohare, Mohari, Sherasa, Turnip

Mizo: An-tam

Punjabi: Sarayo, Sarson

Sanskrit: Katusneha, Siddhartha

Tamil: Kadugu

Telugu: Avalu, Nalla avalu

Urdu: Sarson, Shaljam

Taxonomic Hierarchy

Kingdom: Plantae - plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants

Subkingdom: Viridiplantae

Infrakingdom: Streptophyta - land plants

Superdivision: Embryophyta

Division: Tracheophyta - vascular plants, tracheophytes

Subdivision: Spermatophytina - spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames

Class: Magnoliopsida

Superorder: Rosanae

Order: Brassicales

Family: Brassicaceae - mustards, moutardes, crucifers

Genus: Brassica L. – mustard

Species: Brassica rapa L. – Turnip, Fast plants, Turnip mustard, Rape Mustard, Rape, Bird's Rape, Birdsrape Mustard, Wild Mustard, Wild Rutabaga, Wild Turnip, Turnip Rape, Field Mustard (Syn. Brassica campestris L., Brassica septiceps (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey, Brassica chinensis L., Brassica narinosa L.H. Bailey, Brassica parachinensis L.H. Bailey, Brassica perviridis (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey, Brassica pe-tsai L.H. Bailey, Brassica pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr., Brassica trilocularis (Roxb.) Hook. f. & Thomson, Caulanthus sulfureus Payson, Brassica rapa ssp. sarson (Prain) Denford, Brassica rapa ssp. rapa L., Brassica campestris ssp. campestris L., Brassica campestris ssp. napus Duthie & Fuller, Brassica campestris ssp. rapifera (Metzg.) Sinskaya, Brassica rapa ssp. campestris (L.) Clapham, Brassica rapa ssp. olifera DC., Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera Metzg., Brassica rapa ssp. sylvestris (L.) Janch., Brassica rapa var. amplexicaulis Tanaka & Ono, Brassica rapa var. rapa L., Brassica rapa var. dichotoma (Roxb. ex Fleming) Kitam., Brassica rapa var. silvestris (Lam.) Briggs, Brassica rapa var. trilocularis (Roxb.) Kitam., Brassica campestris var. oleifera DC., Brassica campestris var. rapa (L.) Hartm., Brassica campestris var. sarson Prain, Brassica oleracea var. chinensis (L.) Prain, Brassica rapa var. campestris (L.) W.D.J. Koch, Brassica rapa var. oleifera DC., Brassica rapa var. perviridis L.H. Bailey, Brassica rapa var. septiceps L.H. Bailey, Brassica campestris var. dichotoma (Roxb.) G. Watt)

Phytogeography: India, Saudi Arabia. Probably native to Europe, now cultivated throughout the world.

Description: A biennial herb with swollen tuberous white-fleshed taproot, lacking a neck. Leaves: Basal leaves are light to medium green, hairy or bristly, stalked, lyrate-pinnatifid, 30-50 cm long. Stem-leaves are oblong-lanceshaped, stem-clasping.

Flowers: Bright yellow, sepals spreading: petals 6-10 mm long, those in anthesis close together and commonly overtopping the unopened buds. Outer 2 stamens curved outwards at base and much shorter than inner stamens.

Fruits: 4-6.5 cm long, with long tapering beak, on divaricate-ascending pedicels 3.2-6.5 cm long

Seeds: Blackish or reddish-brown, 1.5-2 mm in diameter.

Flowering season: June.

Propagation: Information not available.

Parts used: Seeds, aerial parts, roots, leaves

Phytochemical Constituents: Essential oil; Fixed oil; Flavonoids; Glucosinolates; Indole alkaloids; Isorhamnetin; Kaempferol; Phenyl propanoid derivatives; Polyphenols; Quercetin glycosides; Sinapine thiocyanate; Sterol glucosides.

Pharmacological actions: Analgesic; Antidiabetic; Antifilarial; Anti-Helicobacter pylori; Anti-inflammatory; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Hepatoprotective, hepatocuritive; Hypoglycemic; Hypoxia tolerance; Immunomodulatory; Narcotic analgesic.

Medicinal uses: Breast tumours; Cancer; Cholecystitis; Cholecystolithiasis; Constipation; Diabetes mellitus; Elephantiasis; Gastritis; Hepatosis, hepatopathy, hepatitis; Inflammation; Pain; Skin cancer; Swelling.

Other uses: Turnip edible parts are consumed as a raw, boiled and/or fermented vegetable all over the world.

Dosage and administration: Seeds: 0.5-1 gm in paste form.

References:

Almeida R.N., Navarro D.S. and Barbosa-Filho J.M., 2001, “Plants with central analgesic activity." Phytomedicine 8.4 (2001): 310-322. [Web Reference]

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, 2001, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume III,” New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH).

Beltagy A.M., 2014, “Investigation of new antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Brassica rapa L.,” Int J Pharm Pharm Sci; 6(6): 84-88. [Web Reference]

Chu B., et al., 2017, “Effects of Tibetan turnip (Brassica rapa L.) on promoting hypoxia-tolerance in healthy humans,” Journal of ethnopharmacology; 195: 246-254. [Web Reference]

Daryoush M., et al., 2011, “Protective effect of turnip root (Brassica rapa. L) ethanolic extract on early hepatic injury in alloxanized diabetic rats,” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences; 5(7): 748-756. [Web Reference]

Fard M.H., et al., 2015, “Effects of aqueous extract of turnip leaf (Brassica rapa) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats,” Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine; 5(2): 148-156. [Web Reference]

Flowers of India, “Turnip,” Retrieved on July 13, 2017. [Web Reference]

Fu R., et al., 2016, “Hepatoprotection using Brassica rapa var. rapa L. seeds and its bioactive compound, sinapine thiocyanate, for CCl 4-induced liver injury,” Journal of Functional Foods; 22: 73-81. [Web Reference]

Gautam G.K., 2012, “Phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants from indian origin,” Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India 302025. [Web Reference]

ITIS, 2017, "Brassica rapa L.,” Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, March 1, 2017. [Web Reference]

Jafarian-Dehkordi A., Zolfaghari B. and Mirdamadi M., 2013, “The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice,” Research in pharmaceutical sciences; 8(3): 159165. [Web Reference]

Kim A.-Y., et al., 2016, “Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of phytochemicals from Brassica rapa L.,” Biomedical Research; 27(4). [Web Reference]

Rahman S., et al., 2013, “Traditional phytotherapy of folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh for treatment of elephantiasis,” American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 7(3): 143-148. [Web Reference]

Sengupta R., Sheorey S.D. and Hinge M.A., 2012, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory plants: an updated review,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research; 12(2): 114-119. [Web Reference]

Zhang Q.X., et al., 2017, “Antioxidant function of Brassica rapa L. polysaccharide and processing technology of its tablet,” Journal of Food Safety and Quality; 8(6): 2079-2085. [Web Reference]

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