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Baliospermum montanum, Baliospermum axillare, Baliospermum solanifolium, Jatropha montana

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Shivani Kagra* & K.L. Dahiya**

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* Pursuing Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgeory; Lal Bhadur Shastri Mahila Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Bilaspur (Yamuna Nagar), Haryana, India

** Kurukshetra Global City, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

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Vernacular name:

Assamese: Danti

Bengali: Danti, Dantigaacha

English: Red Physic Nut, Wild castor, Wild croton, Wild sultan seed

Gujarati: Danti

indi: Danti

Kannada: Damti, Kadu Haralu, Kaadu Haralu, Naagadamti

Konkani: Baktumbo

Malayalam: Ceriyadanthi, Dantti, Naagadanthi, Neervalam

Marathi: Danti, Katari

Nepali: Ajaya pal, Dudhe Jhaar

Oriya: Danti

Punjabi: Danti

Sanskrit: Danti, Dantika, Dirgha, Erandhapatrika, Erandhaphala, Makulakah, Nagadanti, Nagavinna, Nikumbha, Pratyaksreni, Rechani, Ruksha, Shigra, Vishalya, Udumbaraparni

Tamil: Danti, Konda Amudamu, Pey-amanakku

Telugu: Adavi amudamu, Konda Amudamu, Kond amudamu, Nela jidi, Nepalamu

Urdu: Danti

Taxonomic Hierarchy

Kingdom: Plantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants

Subkingdom: Viridiplantae

Infrakingdom: Streptophyta – land plants

Superdivision: Embryophyta

Division: Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes

Subdivision: Spermatophytina – spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames

Class: Magnoliopsida

Superorder: Rosanae

Order: Malpighiales

Family: Euphorbiaceae – spurge, euphorbes

Genus: Baliospermum Blume

Species: Baliospermum montanum Müll. Arg. - Red Physic Nut, wild castor, wild croton, wild sultan seed – (Syn. Baliospermum axillare, Baliospermum solanifolium, Jatropha Montana)

Phytogeography: Distributed throughout India, Burma and Malaya. In India - throughout the sub-Himalayan tract from Kashmir

Description: A stout undershrub, 10 cm to 8 meter in height with herbaceous branches from the roots.

Leaves: Simple, toothed with undulations. Upper leaves are small, lower ones large, sometimes palmately 3-5 lobed, 3-30 cm long, 1.5-15 cm broad.

Flowers: Monoecious, male and female flowers are separated, seen in the same flowering branch, minute, about 3 mm across, greenish yellow, arranged in axillary and terminal racemes, spikes or fascicles. Capsules are distinctly 3-lobed, obovoid, stony, 8-13 mm across, minutely densely pubescent.

Seeds: Egg-shaped.

Propagation: Seeds, micropropagation

Parts used: Roots, seeds, leaves, seed oil

Phytochemical Constituents: b-sitosterol; 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol 13-palmitate; 12-deoxy-5b-hydroxyphorbol 13-myristate; 12-deoxyphorbol 13-palmitate; 8-D-glucoside; 8-sitosterol; Baliospermin; Dipterene hydrocarbon; Flavanoids; Hexacosamol; Montanin; Phorbol esters; Resinous glycosides; Steroids; Terpenoids; Triterpenoids.

Pharmacological actions: Acrid; Analgesic; Anodyne; Anthelmintic; Antibacterial; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-ophidian; Antioxidant; Carminative; Cathartic; Hepatoprotective, hepatocuritive; Hydragogue; Purgative; Rubefacient; Thermogenic.

Medicinal uses: Anaemia; Asthma; Bronchitis; Calculus; Cancer; Colic; Conjunctivitis; Constipation; Dropsy; Flatulence; General anasarca; Helminthiasis, worm infestation; Hepatosis, hepatopathy, hepatitis; Jaundice; Pain; Rheumatism; Scabies; Skin diseases; Snake bite; Swelling; Tumours; Wound.

Roots, seeds, leaves and seed oil are used to treat jaundice, constipation, piles, anaemia, conjuctivitis. The roots are purgative, anthelmintic, carminative, rubefacient and anodyne. Used in abdominal pain, constipation, calculus, general anasarca, piles, helminthic infestation, scabies and skin disorders. Root paste is applied to painful swellings and piles. The leaves relieve asthma and seeds are used to cure snakebites.

Dosage and administration: Roots: 1-3 gm in powder form

References

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, 2001, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume III,” New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH).

Desai P.V., et al., 2008, “Free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.,” International Journal of Green Pharmacy; 2(1): 31-33. [Web Reference]

Flowers of India, “Red Physic Nut,” Retrieved on July 13, 2017. [Web Reference]

ITIS, 2017, “Baliospermum montanum Müll. Arg.,” Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, July 13, 2017. [Web Reference]

Johnson M. and Manickam V.S., 2003, “In vitro micropropagation of Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell-Arg - a medicinal plant,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology; 41: 1349-1351.. [Web Reference]

Johnson M., et al., 2010, “In vivo and in vitro phytochemical and antibacterial efficacy of Baliospermum montanum (Wïlld.) Muell. Arg.,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine; 3(11): 894-897. [Web Reference]

Mali R.G. and Wadekar R.R., 2008, “In vitro anthelmintic activity of Baliospermum montanum muell. arg roots,” Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences; 70(1): 131. [Web Reference]

Rani S., 2014, “INDIAN HERBAL MEDICINE AS HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND HEPATOCURATIVE: A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE,” LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS; 50: 61-115. [Web Reference]

Sengupta R., Sheorey S.D. and Hinge M.A., 2012, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory plants: an updated review,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research; 12(2): 114-119. [Web Reference]

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