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Asparagus racemosus, Asparagus volubilis, Asparagus rigidulus, Asparagus schoberioides, Protasparagus racemosus

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Shivani Kagra* & K.L. Dahiya**

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* Pursuing Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgeory; Lal Bhadur Shastri Mahila Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Bilaspur (Yamuna Nagar), Haryana, India

** Kurukshetra Global City, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

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Vernacular name:

Assamese: Satmull

Bengali: Satamul, Satamuli, Satmuli, Shatamuli

English: Asparagus, Satawari, Wild Asparagus, Indian asparagus, Sataver white, Sataver yellow

Gujarati: Satavari

Hindi: Satavar, Satamul, Satawari, Bojhidan, Shatavir

Kannada: Aheruballi, Ashadhi, Ashadi poeru, Halarru-makkal, Halavu Bau, Narayani, Makkala

Malayalam: Chatavali, Satavali, Satavari Kizhangu

Manipuri: Nunggarei

Marathi: Shatavari, Satavari-mul

Mizo: Arkebawk

Oriya: Vari

Punjabi: Satavar

Sanskrit: Abhiru, Atirasa, Shatavari, Hiranyasringi, Narayani, Vari

Tamil: Kilavari, Nilichedi Kishangu, Sadavari, Shimai-Shadvari, Tannir-muttan-kizhangu

Telugu: Challa-gaddalu, Challagadda, Ettavaludutige), Pippipichara, Pilliteegalu (Fresh Root), Sima-Shatawari (Dry Root

Urdu: Satawar, Satawari, Shaqaqulmisri

Taxonomic classification

Kingdom: Plantae - plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants

Subkingdom: Viridiplantae

Infrakingdom: Streptophyta - land plants

Superdivision: Embryophyta

Division: Tracheophyta - vascular plants, tracheophytes

Subdivision: Spermatophytina - spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames

Class: Magnoliopsida

Superorder: Lilianae - monocots, monocotyledons, monocotylédones

Order: Asparagales

Family: Asparagaceae

Genus: Asparagus L. – asparagus

Species: Asparagus racemosus – Satawari, Wild Asparagus, Indian asparagus, Sataver white, Sataver yellow – (Syn. Asparagus volubilis, Asparagus rigidulus Nakai, Asparagus schoberioides Kunth, Protasparagus racemosus (Willd.) Oberm.)

Phytogeography: Within India, it is found growing wild in tropical and sub-tropical parts of India including the Andamans; and ascending in the Himalayas up to an altitude of 1500 meter. It is also found in Bangladesh.

Description: Satawari is a woody climber growing to 1-2 meter in height,

Roots: Tuberous, 10-30 cm in length and 0.1-0.5 cm thick, tapering at both ends with longitudinal wrinkles; colour cream; taste, sweetish.

Leaves: Like pine needles, small and uniform and

Flowers: White, in small spikes.

It contains adventitious root system with tuberous roots. Stems are climbing, branched, up to 2 meter; branches usually distinctly striate-ridged. Leaves are just modified stems, called cladodes. Branches contain spines on them. Inflorescences develop after cladodes, axillary, each a many-flowered raceme or panicle 1-4 cm. Pedicel 1.5-3 mm, slender, articulate at middle. Flowers are white with a pink tinge, 2-3 mm, bell-shaped with 6 petals. Stamens equal, ca. 0.7 mm; anthers yellow, minute.

Flowering season: October-November.

Propagation: Seeds

Parts used: Whole plant, roots, leaves

Phytochemical Constituents: 4,6-dihydroxy-2–O-(2' hydroxyisobutyl) benzaldehyde; Arginine; Asparagamine A; Asparagine; Calcium; Copper; Essential oils; Flavonoids; Folic acid; Glycosides; Iron; Isoflavones; Kaempferol; Magnesium; Manganese; Minerals; Mucilage; Nickel; Phosphorus; Polysaccharides; Potassium; Quercetin; Racemosol; Resins; Rutin hyperoside; Rutin; Saccharine matter; Saponins; Shatavarin I; Shatavarin II; Shatavarin III; Shatavarin IV; Sitosterol; Sodium; Steroidal saponins; Sugars; Tannins; Tyrosine; Undecanyl cetanoate; Vitamin A; Vitamin B1; Vitamin B2; Vitamin C; Vitamin E; Zinc.

Pharmacological actions: Adaptogenic; Anti-aging; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticonvulsant; Antidepressant; Antidiabetic; Anti-diarrhoeal; Antidote; Antiemetic; Antifilarial; Antigenotoxic; Antioxidant; Anti-paralytic; Antipyretic; Antiseptic; Antitussive; Antiulcer; Aphrodisiac; Astringent; Blood purifier; Cardio protective; Carminative; Cooling; Cytotoxic; Diuretic; Emollient; Galactagogue; Gastroprotective; Hepatoprotective, hepatocuritive; Hypoglycaemic; Hypolipidemic; Immunomodulatory; Intestinal disinfectant; Memory enhancer; Nervine tonic; Rejuvenator; Spermatogenetic; Stomachic; Styptic; Tonic.

Medicinal uses: Arthritis; Bleeding disorders; Convulsion; Cough; Diabetes mellitus; Diarrhoea; Dyspepsia; Erysipelas; Fever; Gastric ulcers; Gout; Haematuria; Haemorrhage; Hepatosis, hepatopathy, hepatitis; Hyperacidity; Lactic disorders; Neuropathy; Neuroprotective; Paralysis; Peritonitis; Piles; Poisoning; Puerperal diseases; Rejuvenate; Sepsis; Voice hoarseness.

In Ayurvedic medicine, the root of Satavari is used in the form of juice, paste, decoction and powder to treat intrinsic haemorrhage, diarrhoea, piles, hoarseness of voice, cough, arthritis, poisoning, diseases of female genital tract, erysipelas, fever, as aphrodisiac and as rejuvenate.

Powdered tubers given with honey for jaundice. Juice of roots (10 ml) with equal quantity of milk given twice daily for a fortnight in chronic liver disorders associated with alcoholism and loss of appetite.

Dosage and administration: Whole plant: Juice obtained from macerated whole plant is taken. In case of diabetes mellitus, decoction of tender shoots (25 ml) taken once a day for 6–8 weeks.

Roots: 3-6 gm of the drug.

In case of diabetes mellitus, powder of tuberous roots mixed with leaf powder Gymnia salvester twice per day for 30 days.

References

Akter S., et al., 2012, “A selection of medicinal plants used as blood purifiers by folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh,” American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture; 6(3):188-194. [Web Reference]

Al Mamun A., et al., 2017, “Comparison of the Hypoglycemic, Hypolipidemic and Hepatoprotective Effects of Asparagus racemosus Linn. in Combination with Gliclazide and Pioglitazone on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats,” Pharmacology & Pharmacy; 8(2): 52. [Web Reference]

Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, 2004, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume IV,” New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH).

Bhandary B., et al., 2016, “Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice,” Journal of Radiation and Cancer Research; 7(1): 31. [Web Reference]

Chhetri D.R., Parajuli P. and Subba G.C., 2005, “Antidiabetic plants used by Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan tribes, India,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology; 99(2): 199-202. [Web Reference]

Flowers of India, “Satawari,” Retrieved on September 3, 2017. [Web Reference]

Gairola S., et al., 2010, “Herbal antitussives and expectorants - a review,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research; 5(2): 5-9. [Web Reference]

Gautam G.K., 2012, “Phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants from indian origin,” Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India 302025. [Web Reference]

ITIS, 2017, "Asparagus L.,”Integrated Taxonomic Information System on-line database, March 1, 2017. [Web Reference]

Joshi R.K., 2016, “Asparagus racemosus (Shatawari), phytoconstituents and medicinal importance, future source of economy by cultivation in Uttrakhand: A review,” Inter. J. Herb. Med; 4(4): 18-21. [Web Reference]

Khanra, Kalyani, et al. "Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Properties of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesized from Root Extract of Asparagus Racemosus." Nano Biomedicine & Engineering 8.1 (2016). [Web Reference]

Khare C.P., 2008, “Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary,” Springer Science & Business Media.

Mikawlrawng K., et al., 2017, “Anti-paralytic medicinal plants–Review,” Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine;. [Web Reference]

Quintans L.J., et al., 2008, “Plants with anticonvulsant properties: a review,” Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia; 18: 798-819. [Web Reference]

Rahman S., et al., 2013, “Traditional phytotherapy of folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh for treatment of elephantiasis,” American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 7(3): 143-148. [Web Reference]

Rani S., 2014, “INDIAN HERBAL MEDICINE AS HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND HEPATOCURATIVE: A REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE,” LIFE SCIENCES LEAFLETS; 50: 61-115. [Web Reference]

Subramoniam A., Madhavachandran V. and Gangaprasad A., 2013, “Medicinal plants in the treatment of arthritis,” Ann Phytomedicine; 2: 3-36. [Web Reference]

Uddin M.S., et al., 2016, “Neuroprotective activity of Asparagus racemosus Linn. against ethanol-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats brain: Auspicious for controlling the risk of Alzheimer’s disease,” J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism; 6(245): 2161-0460. [Web Reference]

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