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Vitamin PP

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Scientific name: Obsolete name for niacin


Active form: NAD(H), NADP(H)

Alternative names: Nicotinamide

Physical properties: It is water soluble, non-flourescent, crystelline in nature and white is colour. The molecular weight of Nicotinic acid and Nicotinamide 123.1 and 122.1 respectively. Nicotinamide is freely soluble in water.

Substance/source: - Dairy products - Milk, Yogurt, Cheeses

Meats - Chicken, Lamb, Pork, Turkey, Herring, Cod, Flounder, Haddock, Tuna

Cereals - Barley, Buckwheat, Cornmeal, Rice, Rye, Wheat

Other - Eggs, Mushrooms, Yeast

Vegetables - Asparagus, Beans, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflowr, Celery, Corn, Kale, Lentils, Onions, Peas, Peppers, Potatoes, Soy beans, Spinach, Tomatoes

Fruits - Apples, Bananas, Grapefruit, Oranges, Peaches, Strawberries

Nuts - Peanuts,

Physiological role: Coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions; functional part of NAD and NADP; Co-substrates for hydrogen transfer catalyzed by many dehydrogenases, e.g., tricarboxylic acid cycle respiratory chain

Hypovitaminosis: Cracking dermatitis (pellagra) in human being and chicks; Desquamation (shedding of skin) in human beings and chicks; Hyperkeratosis (thickening of the skin) in human and chicks; Hyperpigmentation (pellagra) in human; Photosensitization (pellagra) in human; Stomatitis (pellagra) in human; Alopecia in rats and pigs; Anaemia in pig; Haemorrhage in dog; Diarrhea in dog, pig, poultry; Diarhoea, Pellagra in human; Constipation, Pellagra in human; Inflammation in chicks;  Achlorhydria, Pellagra in human; Inflammation of mouth in poutry; Glossitis, Pellagra in human; Abnormal tongue papillae in human; Stomatitis, Pellagra in human; Tremors, Pellagra in human; Nerve degeneration in pig, rat; Irritability irritability, Pellagra in human; Depression,  Pellagra in human; Dizziness, Pellagra in human; Irritability, Pellagra in human; Dementia, Pellagra in human; Chondrodystrophy, Perosis in chick, poult; Decreased appetite; Decreased growth; Dermatitis; Diarrhoea; Glossitis; Perosis; Anaemia; Ataxia; Dementia;

Hypervitaminosis: Anorexia in adult human; Cardiac arrhythmia in adult human; Decreased weight gain in chicken; Developmental abnormalities in chicken (embryo), mouse (fetus); Headache in adult human; Impaired growth in chicken (embryo); Itching in adult human; Jaundice in adult human; Lethality in chicken (embryo), mouse; Liver damage in adult human; Liver damage in mouse; Mucocutaneous lesions in chicken; Myocardial damage in mouse; Vessel dilation in adult human;

Daily Requirements: Male 16.0 mg, female 14.0 mg

Tolerable daily upper intake level: 35.0 mg

  1. Goldberger J, Wheeler G, Lillie R. A further study of butter, fresh beef, and yeast as pellagra preventatives, with consideration of the relation of Factor PP of pellagra (and black tongue in dogs) to vitamin B. Publ Hlth Rep 1926; 41: 297–318.
  2. Masri O.A., Chalhoub J.M. and Sharara A.I., 2015, “Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases,” World Journal of Gastroenterology; 21(17): 5191-5209. [Web Reference]
  3. Spinas E., et al., 2015, “Crosstalk between vitamin B and immunity,” Journal of Biological Regulators & Homeostatic Agents; 29(2): 283-88. [Web Reference]
  4. Williams P., 2015, “The missing vitamin alphabet,” Nutrition & Dietetics [Web Reference]
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