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The River Meander

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River; River Channel and Tributaries; Source of River; River Gorge; Freshwater For Life; Waterfalls; Rapids In River; Torrent Ducks – Live and Find Food in Rapids; Salmons – the Anti-rapids of river; River Meander; Nutrients And Life; Sediments And The Mud; Floodplains; River Deltas; Junction of Rivers; Damage by Rivers; Dams Over Rivers; Spoiling of Rivers

As the river leaves the mountains, the valley becomes wider, and the sides are less steep. This is known as the “middle course” of the river. The water in the middle course of the river moves more slowly than water at the source. As it swings around a bend, a river erodes the soil of the far banks and dumps sand and stone on the inner banks. The band, which is called a “meander”, gets bigger and in time, river flows in a series of loops in a much wider valley. The Mississippi River in U.S. has so many meanders that American writer Mark Twain called it “crookedest” river in the world. As the time goes by, a meander grows so wide that it is shaped almost like a circle. A meander can grow until only a thin strip of land is left between the bends in the river. Water takes the easiest route. Sometimes it cuts through a meander to form a new, straight channel. When a river cuts through a meander, it leaves a horseshoe-shaped lake known as “oxbow lake” An oxbow lake dries up after a period of time, but it may refill if the river floods.

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