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Madan Mohan Malaviya

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Abha, 10+2 (Med), Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Nationality: British Indian

Known to be: Journalist, Social reformer, Educationist, Parliamentarian

Born: December 25, 1861 in Prayaga (Allahabad)

Died: November 12, 1946

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was an iconic figure of Indian National movement. Pandit Malaviya, an embodiment of Indian culture and nationalism was a social reformer, an educationist with a vision, an ardent journalist and effective parliamentarian. He was born on December 25, 1861 in Prayaga (Allahabad) in a reputed Hindu Brahmin family. His father's name was Pandit Brij Nath while Moona Devi was his mother. He got his early education from 'Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala' of Pandit Hardeva. He passed his matriculation examination in 1879 from Prayaga Government High School and then joined Myore Central College for higher studies. He started composing poems at the tender age of 15 with the pen name 'Makarand'. He was married to Kundan Devi in 1878. Malaviya completed his L.L.B. in 1891 from the Myore Central College, Now Christened as Allahabad University. He was a staunch believer of Hinduism and he wanted to propagate its sublime ideas and teachings before people. For this purpose he wrote many articles. He founded 'Prayaga Hindu Samaj' and in 1887 he established 'Bharat Dharma Mahamandal' to propagate Sanatam Dharma and Hindi Culture. In 1885, he edited 'India Union', an English weekly paper. He also edited 'Hindustan' and 'Indian Opinion'. He gave up his law practice in 1913 for the cause of his country. He wanted to free his country from the curse of foreign rule. He used to enlighten the mind of Indian youth with his articles. In 1907, on the day of Vasanta Panchami, he launched a Hindi weekly paper named 'Abhyudaya'. He was also instrumental in bringing put English daily - Leader in 1909.

He was one among the founding members of the Indian National Congress. He served the Allahabad Municipality till 1916 as its member. He also remained the member of the Imperial Legislative Council from 1912 to 1926. He successfully defended the President of the Indian Chouri Choura case. He was the President of the Indian National Congress in 1909 and 1918. He vehemently opposed the Simon Commission and played a vital role in the non-cooperation movement. He also participated at the first round table conference.

Pandit Madna Mohan Malaviya wanted to uplift the Indian society with the help of education. For this purpose he got help from Dr. Annie Besant who started Central Hindu College in Varanasi in 1889. This college later developed on as the Banaras Hindu University with the commendable efforts of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya ji. In brief, he dedicated his fellow countrymen. He passed way on November 12, 1946.

He was elected the President of the Indian national Congress session in 1909 (Lahore session) and in 1918 (Delhi session). He also presided over the 1932 session of Indian national Congress in Delhi. He along with Lala Lajpat Rai formed 'Congress Independent Party' in August 1926. He also formed All India Swadeshi Union in Banaras in 1932. He used to pen poems and hymns under pen name - 'Makarand'.

On December 24, 2014, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was posthumously conferred the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honour of India.

Malaviyaji's ancestors were Sanskrit scholars originally hailing from Malwa, Central India, hence called the 'Malaviyas'. But their actual surname was 'Chaturvedi'. Pandit madan Mohan Malaviya ji edited 'Indian Union (English weekly), Indian Opionion, Abhiyudaya (Hindi weekly), Leader (English weekly), Maryada (Hindi paper) and Hindustan. Among Malaviyaji's many achievements, the most monumental was the establishment of banaras Hindu University in 1916.


Bilal D., 2017, “PROMINENT HISTORICAL PERSONALITIES OF INDIA,” Pratiyogita Darpan English; July 2017: 114.

Kalpana Rajaram, 2015, “Personalities Associated with the National Movement,” Spectrum’s Handbook for General Studies Paper – I; Spectrum Books (P) Ltd., New Delhi; p. 36-40.

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